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“During the Middle Ages theology was understood to be the queen of the sciences, and classical learning, insofar as it was true, was theology’s servant or ‘handmaiden.’ The metaphor described the relationship between Greek wisdom and Christian theology.
“Quite early in the Christian era theologians had to come to terms with classical learning. Almost inevitably there were tensions between Christian teaching and aspects of pagan thought, with St. Paul declaring on one occasion that the Gospel was ‘folly’ to the Greeks (1 Cor. 1:23). Subsequently, the church father Tertullian declared philosophy to be ‘the parent of heresy’ (The Prescription against Heretics, chap. 7). Some early Christian writers, however, stressed the value of pagan wisdom, suggesting that it was a ‘preparation’ for the Gospel (see, e.g., Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 1.5, 1.7). Tertullian was more positive toward philosophy than some of his more extreme statements might suggest.
“When Aristotelian learning was reintroduced in the West in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the question of the role of Greek philosophy and its relationship to Christian theology was raised again. While there was some initial resistance to Aristotelian philosophy, by the middle of the fourteenth century it was entrenched in university curriculums. Its predominant role in the universities was justified because it was said to serve the interests of Christian theology. In this sense it served as handmaiden to the queen of the sciences, theology.”
— Heidi A. Campbell and Heather Looy, A Science and Religion Primer, 116-117.